Distribution & Status: Current breeding range Southern California to northern Baja California. Winters in southern Baja California. Listed as federally endangered in 1986.
Habitat: Breeds in riparian (streamside) habitat with a layer of dense, shrubby plants under taller trees.
Feeding: Captures insects and spiders by foliage-gleaning from just above ground level to tree top. Larger prey items are held with its foot and smashed with its bill before eating.
Song: Composed of two main phrases, the first ascends and second descends.
Life Span: 3-4 years; an 8-year-old banded male is on record at San Diego River.
Behavior Notes: Males help in all phases of the nest cycle, from building the basket-like nest to incubating eggs and tending chicks. Nests commonly parasitized by Brown-headed Cowbirds.
--Sue Abbott, PRBO Education & Outreach
--Reviewed by Barbara Kus, USGS Western Ecological Research Center, San Diego
Reference: Brown B.T. 1993. Bell's Vireo. In "Birds of North America" No.35